[8] Earth photography and re-entry vehicle test. The Navy, in particular, needed a vehicle to study the atmosphere and learn how to predict bad weather which would affect the fleet. Before Rosen departed for JPL, Krause and his team drew up detailed specifications for Viking and sent them to five companies. Chamber Pressure: 55.00 bar.

Payload: 230 kg (500 lb). "Rockets, Missiles, and Space Travel", by Willey Ley, 3rd Edition, Viking Press, New York, 1951, p. 250ff. Thrust vector control by gimbaling the rocket motor, as opposed to the graphite vanes used by the German V-2 and the U.S. Army Redstone missiles. [3], The Viking was the most advanced large, liquid-fueled rocket being developed in the U.S. at the time. One of the most significant for rocketry was the use of a gimbaled thrust chamber which could be swiveled from side to side on two axes for pitch and yaw control, dispensing with the inefficient and somewhat fragile graphite vanes in the engine exhaust used by the V-2. In contrast, the type 9 Viking was shorter (about 13 m (42 ft)) and much squatter; it was 50 percent heavier and could carry 450 kg (1000 lb) to 254 km (158 mi). Your email address will not be published. The two major contractors on the Viking were Glenn L. Martin Co., which won the competition for the prime contract in August 1946, and Reaction Motors, Inc., which built the rocket engine under a separate contract from the Navy's Bureau of Aeronautics. The Reaction Motors XLR10-RM-2 engine was the largest liquid-fueled rocket engine developed in the United States up to that time, producing 92.5 kN (20,800 lbf) (sea level) and 110.5 kN (24,800 lbf) (vacuum) of thrust. Before World War II, the field of rocket technology development was dominated by small groups of enthusiastic visionaries such as the American Rocket Society as well as brilliant individuals like Dr. Robert Goddard who launched the first liquid propellant rocket from Auburn, Massachusetts in 1926 (see “Goddard’s First Rocket Patents – July 1914”). Telemetry showed that while the engine was working well, problems with the control system were shaking the rocket.

(NASM). This method of control has become standard since, both for reliability and efficiency reasons. During descent, explosives were fired to separate the nose from the rocket. The pictures show that the soil resembled those produced from the weathering of basaltic lavas. The success NRL achieved in this series of experiments encouraged laboratory scientists to believe that, with a more powerful engine and the addition of upper stages, the Viking rocket could be made a vehicle capable of launching an earth satellite. It landed on the desert 8 km (5 mi) away.

It was found that lightening the rocket was more important than providing insulation for the cryogenic oxidizer. The first launch attempt for Viking 2 came at 11:29 MDT on August 26 carrying another 187-kilogram payload to measure the properties of the upper atmosphere. A turbine leak now became the major suspect for the Viking 1 problem. The blockhouse at White Sands’ Launch Complex 33 (LC-33). Technological advances pioneered by Viking included the following: Among its scientific achievements, firsts up to their time, were: Through the Viking flights, NRL was first to measure temperature, pressure, density, composition and winds in the upper atmosphere and electron density in the ionosphere, and to record the ultraviolet spectra of the Sun. This inexpensive, 540-kilogram rocket would be capable of sending a 60-kilogram payload to an altitude of 125 kilometers and would be suitable for many of the Navy’s investigations of the threshold of space including direct observations of the ionosphere’s “D layer” (which was present only during daytime at an altitude of 60 to 90 kilometers and attenuated medium and high-frequency radio transmissions) and its “E layer” (which persisted during all times of the day and extended from about 90 to 150 kilometers). Both were launched from Cape Canaveral, on 8 December 1956 (Viking 13) and 1 May 1957 (Viking 14),[9] and were designated Vanguard TV0 and Vanguard TV1 respectively.

The original Martin contract called for 10 Vikings. Program direction at NRL was originally by C. H. Smith, under E. H. Krause; but in the fall of 1947, both Krause and Smith left to work on another project. The first week of February was set aside for rocket operations rehearsals with Viking 1 being bolted to its launch pedestal over the firing pit on February 1. Last Launch: 1951-08-07. In 1946, NRL directed the development of a new sounding rocket called Viking, which was designed and built by the Glenn L. Martin Company. Unfortunately, the trajectory of Viking 3 drifted westward forcing ground controllers to shut down the engine early by remote command after 59.6 seconds of flight when the speed was 1,049 meters per second. While more work was needed to get Viking to meet its potential, Viking 4 would get its chance to prove itself to be a useful scientific tool as well as a technology demonstrator with a planned launch from the deck of the US Navy’s USS Norton Sound in the Pacific Ocean planned for May 1950. Thrust (sl): 611.600 kN (137,493 lbf). With its many innovations to enhance performance, Viking (which received the designation RTV-N-12) was capable of launching a 900-kilogram payload to an altitude of about 135 kilometers while a 45-kilogram payload could be hurled as high as 385 kilometers.

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viking 2 rocket

This was more than was considered necessary for the scientific instrument payload of a high-altitude research rocket, but in the case of the V-2, used for research, most of the payload was lead ballast required for stable flight,[2] limiting the potential speed and altitude that could be reached with the smaller payloads typically needed for early scientific investigations. The rocket impacted the desert 420 seconds after launch. Viking 1 completed its 3,200-kilometer cross-country trip on January 17, 1949 when it arrived at the railhead at Oro Grande, New Mexico. It reached 143 miles (230 km). [7] Roll control was by use of the turbopump exhaust to power RCS jets on the fins. The engine was one of the first three large, liquid-propelled, rocket-powered engines produced in the United States. It included an instrument suite to measure temperatures and pressures in the atmosphere as well as a camera. While Rosen still hoped to achieve an altitude of at least 160 kilometers despite the low LOX supply, the XLR-10 engine shutdown early 54.5 seconds after launch with the rocket travelling at 1,052 meters per second. Viking 2 arrived at White Sands in July 1949 as engineers puzzled over the cause of the early engine shutdown on Viking 1. Build the Viking in a day and fly to the moon tomorrow.

The graphite vanes in the V-2 exhaust plume tended to disintegrate during powered flight leading to failures. Diameter: 0.81 m (2.65 ft). Coefficient of Thrust sea level: 1.57769748966301. Twelve Viking … I use WIKI 2 every day and almost forgot how the original Wikipedia looks like.

Viking 1 was finally erected on its firing stand on February 28, 1949 in anticipation of its first static test firing scheduled for March 7. Diagram showing both Viking rocket variants, Vikings 1 to 7 (left) and 8 to 12 (right). During one of these efforts, known as Operation Paperclip, the US Army was able to get 300 railcar loads of V-2 rockets and components as well as von Braun and many key members of his team and bring them back to the US. Viking 3 reached a peak altitude of 80 kilometers some 169 seconds after launch.

The Viking-A spacecraft was scheduled to be launched first but ended up being launched second due to a problem with its batteries. The Viking 2 lander operated on the surface for 1316 days, or 1281 sols, and was turned off on April 12, 1980 when its batteries failed.

NASA had informed that Viking 2 took its ride into space on a Titan rocket on September 9, 1975, following the footsteps of its twin, Viking 1. After engine burnout, the attitude of the Viking rocket would be controlled by cold gas jets feeding from a 24-kilogram supply of high pressure nitrogen so that its instrument payload could be kept oriented in the proper direction for its measurements – another major improvement over the V-2. Rosen, who worked at NRL under Krause during World War II developing missile guidance systems, was an electrical engineer by training who took a keen interest in rocketry as information about the V-2 and other German missiles became available after the war. (NASM). Despite its lack of rocket experience, Martin’s bid for an initial batch of ten rockets was chosen on August 21, 1946 for two reasons. In order to further lighten the rocket’s structure, the Viking incorporated an integral fuel tank feature where the outer skin of the rocket also served as the tank itself. Although initially made entirely of steel, Reaction Motors engineers eventually substituted nickel for the interior lining because of its superior thermal and mechanical properties. Twelve Viking rockets flew from 1949 to 1955.[1]. Because of Rosen’s enthusiasm for his large sounding rocket proposal, Krause put him in charge of the Viking program. By the time Rosen returned to NRL in the spring of 1947, work was already well underway developing the Viking rocket and its engine. Launched at 1608 local time. Viking embodied the successful, important innovations of a gimballed motor for steering and intermittent gas jets for stabilizing the vehicle after the main power cutoff. The Viking 2 mission was part of the American Viking program to Mars, and consisted of an orbiter and a lander essentially identical to that of the Viking 1 mission. (Martin). The structure was also largely aluminum, as opposed to steel used in the V-2, thus shedding more weight. The highest altitude measurement of atmospheric winds (Viking 7). Congratulations on this excellent venture… what a great idea! William M. Leak), pp. The diameter was increased to 45 in (114 cm), while the length was reduced to 13 m (42 ft), altering the missile's "pencil shape." "History of Rocketry & Space Travel," revised edition, Wernher von Braun and Frederick I. Ordway III, Thomas Y. Crowell Co., New York, 1969, p. 151, "U.S. space-rocket liquid propellant engines", International Missile and Spacecraft Guide, Directory of U.S. Military Rockets and Missiles, Free paper models of viking 7, 10, 13 and 14, The Robert Goddard Connection with Viking (see Professional Relations), 92.5 kN (20,800 lbf) (sea level) and 110.5 kN (24,800 lbf) (vacuum), An essentially all-aluminum airframe, with a. The Viking rocket series of sounding rockets were designed and built by the Glenn L. Martin Company (now Lockheed-Martin) under the direction of the U.S. Viking 6, 11 December 1950, suffered catastrophic failure of the stabilizing fins late in powered flight, with loss of attitude control, and associated very large drag. The V-2 would tumble in the rarefied atmosphere at high altitudes. The first launch, of Viking 1, on 3 May 1949 came after a very prolonged and trying period of ground firing tests, and attained an altitude of 50 miles (80 km). You could also do it yourself at any point in time. The altitude was limited by a premature engine cut-off, eventually traced to steam leakage from the turbine casing. It was quickly determined that the seal between halves of the turbopump was failing as a result of the high operating temperatures and the vibration of launch. A Navy Viking 7 rocket set an altitude record for single-stage rockets and reaching a speed of 6,600 kph. Viking 5, 21 November 1950 reached 108 miles (174 km). Twelve Viking rockets flew from 1949 to 1955.[1]. Viking 9, 15 December 1952, reached 136 miles (219 km) altitude in the first successful flight of the improved airframe design. Equipment to support Viking launches was already installed as were Navy-built facilities to support the ground crews.

[8] Earth photography and re-entry vehicle test. The Navy, in particular, needed a vehicle to study the atmosphere and learn how to predict bad weather which would affect the fleet. Before Rosen departed for JPL, Krause and his team drew up detailed specifications for Viking and sent them to five companies. Chamber Pressure: 55.00 bar.

Payload: 230 kg (500 lb). "Rockets, Missiles, and Space Travel", by Willey Ley, 3rd Edition, Viking Press, New York, 1951, p. 250ff. Thrust vector control by gimbaling the rocket motor, as opposed to the graphite vanes used by the German V-2 and the U.S. Army Redstone missiles. [3], The Viking was the most advanced large, liquid-fueled rocket being developed in the U.S. at the time. One of the most significant for rocketry was the use of a gimbaled thrust chamber which could be swiveled from side to side on two axes for pitch and yaw control, dispensing with the inefficient and somewhat fragile graphite vanes in the engine exhaust used by the V-2. In contrast, the type 9 Viking was shorter (about 13 m (42 ft)) and much squatter; it was 50 percent heavier and could carry 450 kg (1000 lb) to 254 km (158 mi). Your email address will not be published. The two major contractors on the Viking were Glenn L. Martin Co., which won the competition for the prime contract in August 1946, and Reaction Motors, Inc., which built the rocket engine under a separate contract from the Navy's Bureau of Aeronautics. The Reaction Motors XLR10-RM-2 engine was the largest liquid-fueled rocket engine developed in the United States up to that time, producing 92.5 kN (20,800 lbf) (sea level) and 110.5 kN (24,800 lbf) (vacuum) of thrust. Before World War II, the field of rocket technology development was dominated by small groups of enthusiastic visionaries such as the American Rocket Society as well as brilliant individuals like Dr. Robert Goddard who launched the first liquid propellant rocket from Auburn, Massachusetts in 1926 (see “Goddard’s First Rocket Patents – July 1914”). Telemetry showed that while the engine was working well, problems with the control system were shaking the rocket.

(NASM). This method of control has become standard since, both for reliability and efficiency reasons. During descent, explosives were fired to separate the nose from the rocket. The pictures show that the soil resembled those produced from the weathering of basaltic lavas. The success NRL achieved in this series of experiments encouraged laboratory scientists to believe that, with a more powerful engine and the addition of upper stages, the Viking rocket could be made a vehicle capable of launching an earth satellite. It landed on the desert 8 km (5 mi) away.

It was found that lightening the rocket was more important than providing insulation for the cryogenic oxidizer. The first launch attempt for Viking 2 came at 11:29 MDT on August 26 carrying another 187-kilogram payload to measure the properties of the upper atmosphere. A turbine leak now became the major suspect for the Viking 1 problem. The blockhouse at White Sands’ Launch Complex 33 (LC-33). Technological advances pioneered by Viking included the following: Among its scientific achievements, firsts up to their time, were: Through the Viking flights, NRL was first to measure temperature, pressure, density, composition and winds in the upper atmosphere and electron density in the ionosphere, and to record the ultraviolet spectra of the Sun. This inexpensive, 540-kilogram rocket would be capable of sending a 60-kilogram payload to an altitude of 125 kilometers and would be suitable for many of the Navy’s investigations of the threshold of space including direct observations of the ionosphere’s “D layer” (which was present only during daytime at an altitude of 60 to 90 kilometers and attenuated medium and high-frequency radio transmissions) and its “E layer” (which persisted during all times of the day and extended from about 90 to 150 kilometers). Both were launched from Cape Canaveral, on 8 December 1956 (Viking 13) and 1 May 1957 (Viking 14),[9] and were designated Vanguard TV0 and Vanguard TV1 respectively.

The original Martin contract called for 10 Vikings. Program direction at NRL was originally by C. H. Smith, under E. H. Krause; but in the fall of 1947, both Krause and Smith left to work on another project. The first week of February was set aside for rocket operations rehearsals with Viking 1 being bolted to its launch pedestal over the firing pit on February 1. Last Launch: 1951-08-07. In 1946, NRL directed the development of a new sounding rocket called Viking, which was designed and built by the Glenn L. Martin Company. Unfortunately, the trajectory of Viking 3 drifted westward forcing ground controllers to shut down the engine early by remote command after 59.6 seconds of flight when the speed was 1,049 meters per second. While more work was needed to get Viking to meet its potential, Viking 4 would get its chance to prove itself to be a useful scientific tool as well as a technology demonstrator with a planned launch from the deck of the US Navy’s USS Norton Sound in the Pacific Ocean planned for May 1950. Thrust (sl): 611.600 kN (137,493 lbf). With its many innovations to enhance performance, Viking (which received the designation RTV-N-12) was capable of launching a 900-kilogram payload to an altitude of about 135 kilometers while a 45-kilogram payload could be hurled as high as 385 kilometers.

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