These shapes are due to ice in the soil expanding and contracting due to major temperature changes.
Image located in Argyre quadrangle. The enormous Valles Marineris canyon system is named after Mariner 9 in honor of its achievements. The pressures measured by Pathfinder would not permit water or ice to exist on the surface. Even though dry ice also sublimates under the conditions present, it would do so at a rate much faster than observed. The crater Luki is 21 km in diameter.
Dark streaks can be seen in the images below, as seen from Mars Global Surveyor. Location is Oxia Palus quadrangle.
 Underground volcanism may have melted frozen ice; the water then flowed away and the ground just collapsed to leave chaotic terrain.  There may be much more water further below the surface; the instruments aboard the Mars Odyssey are only able to study the top meter or so of soil. (480) 965-1790 (Tel.)
Clay is a mineral that forms from other minerals when water is available. These branched channels are strong evidence for flowing water on Mars, perhaps during a much warmer period. Mars May Be Emerging From An Ice Age.
Some of the rocks at the Mars Pathfinder site leaned against each other in a manner geologists term imbricated.
 One scientist's view poised that the lander's thrusters splashed a pocket of brine from just below the Martian surface onto the landing strut during the vehicle's landing. In 2012, the NASA's rover Curiosity discovered solid evidence for an ancient streambed that used to flow through the rocks.
The scale bar is 500 meters. For about as far as the camera can see, the land is flat, but shaped into polygons between 2–3 meters in diameter and are bounded by troughs that are 20 cm to 50 cm deep. The ice was found in five locations.
Picture taken under the HiWish program. The mars odyssey is a satellite that travels around mars for exploration.
Layers in west slope of Asimov Crater. TES identified a large (30,000 square-kilometer) area (in the Nili Fossae formation) that contained the mineral olivine. Location is Hellas quadrangle.
When Opportunity landed, layered rocks and marble-like hematite concretions ("blueberries") were easily visible. Mars has enough ice just beneath the surface to fill Lake Michigan twice.
Location is Phaethontis quadrangle. Others show layers that may have formed under lakes. Reull Vallis with lineated floor deposits.
Listen to this story via streaming audio, a downloadable file, or get help. Layers in Tikhonravov crater in Arabia. A large trough or graben turns into a line of collapse pits.
Image is located in Lunae Palus quadrangle. Additional analysis of the rock exposures using data from the Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) on the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft reveals they contain quartz along with plagioclase feldspar.
During certain climate periods water vapor leaves polar ice and enters the atmosphere. Layers west of Juventae Chasma.
Image located in Argyre quadrangle.
View of lobate debris apron along a slope. Below are some of the many hundreds of gullies that have been studied with HiRISE. Gullies in Phaethontis quadrangle.
 The generally accepted explanation for the streaks is that they are formed from the avalanching of a thin layer of bright dust that is covering a darker surface.
Head, J. et al. This mineral contains hydroxide ions, which indicates the presence of water when the minerals were formed. The soil also contained a high amount of phosphorus in its composition, however not nearly as high as another rock sampled by Spirit, "Wishstone". Click on image to see mantle covering and possible gullies. Networks of channels like this are strong evidence for rain on Mars in the past.
The ice was confirmed with the Compact Imaging Spectrometer (CRISM) on board the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO).
Scalloped Terrain at Peneus Patera. This process is common on Earth's deserts. However, the lake bed had been covered over with lava flows, so evidence of past water was initially hard to detect.  It is believed that although the upper surface only contains a percent or so of water, ice may lie just a few feet deeper. Bright dust settles on all Martian surfaces after a period of time.. Mars odyssey: A mars exploration. Craters like this suggest that large amounts of frozen water were melted when the impact crater was produced. Lobate debris aprons are shown below from the Phlegra Montes, which are at a latitude of 38.2 degrees north.  Scientists believe that much of this water is locked up in the chemical structure of minerals, such as clay and sulfates.
Image located in Argyre quadrangle.
Retrieved February 19, 2009, from. Three of the locations are in the Cebrenia quadrangle. Tikhonravov crater floor in Arabia quadrangle. Scale bar is 500 meters long. Streaks and patches of false-color red mark exposures of quartz-bearing rocks that resemble terrestrial granites. Image is located in the Phaethontis quadrangle.
The erosion shaped the ejecta around Dromore crater. Basalt, a volcanic rock, is thought to form layers composed of boulders. Dark slope streaks are seen to originate from certain layers (you may need to click on image to see the streaks).
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Scientists are happy about finding layers on Mars since layers may have formed under large bodies of water.
Lakes may have been scattered over large areas of the Martian surface. , Hundreds of gullies have been discovered that were formed from liquid water, possible in recent times. Image is 20 miles wide. Erosion features in Ares Vallis – the streamined shape was probably formed by running water. Bottom of picture shows southeastern wall of crater. Huo Hsing Vallis in Syrtis Major quadrangle.
Much of the surface of Mars is covered by a thick smooth mantle that is thought to be a mixture of ice and dust. As a result of mission observations, it is now believed that water ice (snow) would have accumulated later in the year at this location. It is thought that the ancient impact that created the Isidis basin resulted in faults that exposed the olivine. Scale bar is 500 meters long. That is 11 times larger than the five volcanoes on the Big Island of Hawaii. The best-known is the one in Nanedi Valles. Image is in Coprates quadrangle. Some involve water, or even the growth of organisms. In contrast, other layers break up into large boulders so they are probably much harder. They are found on the floors of some channels. Much of the surface of Mars is covered by a thick smooth mantle that is thought to be a mixture of ice and dust.
HiRISE image showing gullies.
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