Gram stain of culture growth of cerebrospinal fluid, showing Listeria monocytogenes. L. monocytogenes can also invade phagocytic cells (e.g., macrophages), but requires only internalins for invasion of nonphagocytic cells. Infection with L. monocytogenes also causes death of phagocytic cells, the nature and significance of which is not clear at present.
Hence, prevention and control are difficult. Listeria monocytogenes is the species of pathogenic bacteria that causes the infection listeriosis. Although transmitted by food, it is an unusual cause of food poisoning and gastroenteritis. Sheila Ryan, ... Cormac G.M.
Batt, in Encyclopedia of Food Microbiology (Second Edition), 2014. Once attached to this cells, L. monocytogenes can translocate past the intestinal membrane and into the body. These postgenomic studies, comparing pathogenic strains of L. monocytogenes and the closely related species Listeria innocua, have led to the discovery of new virulence factors. Once in the cytoplasm, L. monocytogenes exploits host actin for the second time. However, barring postpasteurization contamination, properly pasteurized fluid milk products will be free of Listeria. Gastrointestinal symptoms were epidemiologically associated with use of antacids or cimetidine. The same mechanism also allows the bacteria to travel from cell to cell. One example of the successful use of L. monocytogenes in in vitro transfer technologies is in the delivery of gene therapies for cystic fibrosis cases. Also commonly associated with listeriosis are unreheated hot dogs and turkey franks and undercooked poultry.
Listeria produces acid, but not gas, when fermenting a variety of carbohydrates. E.T. Listeria monocytogenes is endemic to dairy farms and to a lesser extent dairy processing facilities where this pathogen is typically considered a postpasteurization contaminant. An early study suggested that L. monocytogenes is unique among Gram-positive bacteria in that it might possess lipopolysaccharide, which serves as an endotoxin. Subsequent actin polymerization creates a "phagocytic cup", an actin-based structure normally formed around foreign materials by phagocytes prior to endocytosis. It can grow and reproduce inside the host's cells and is one of the most virulent foodborne pathogens: 20 to 30% of foodborne listeriosis infections in high-risk individuals may be fatal.
Although attention to this organism as a foodborne pathogen began in the 1980s, it initially was discovered almost 100 years ago. Characteristics of Listeria species. Listeria monocytogenes is a Gram-positive non-spore-forming rod on the order of 0.5–2 μm in length.
Patients often have ingested foods associated with transmission in the preceding month, and many patients presenting with bacteremia, central nervous system (CNS) infection, or infection during pregnancy have experienced symptomatic gastroenteritis in the preceding month. Due to its frequent pathogenicity, causing meningitis in newborns (acquired transvaginally), pregnant mothers are often advised not to eat soft cheeses such as Brie, Camembert, feta, and queso blanco fresco, which may be contaminated with and permit growth of L. They are catalase positive and oxidase negative. Detailed study of L. monocytogenes has led to its use as a potential candidate for antigen delivery against a number of cancers, thus providing a compelling example of how understanding the natural pathogenesis of an organism can lead to unprecedented advances in both medicine and physiology.
Febrile bacteremia with flulike illness (sometimes accompanied by lower back pain and gastrointestinal symptoms) is most commonly observed in the third trimester. Postgenomic studies have also helped us to understand how Listeria survives in a variety of different environments. Only L. monocytogenes and L. ivanovii can cause disease in animals, and only L. monocytogenes appears to cause disease in humans, although there are sporadic reports of L. innocua and L. seeligeri causing disease in humans. Laboratory diagnosis of Leprosy caused by Mycobacterium leprae, Biochemical Test of Listeria monocytogenes, Measles Virus- Laboratory Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention and Control, Laboratory diagnosis, treatment and prevention of Rickettsia rickettsii, Laboratory diagnosis, treatment and prevention of Borrelia burgdorferi, Laboratory diagnosis, treatment and prevention of Leptospira interrogans, Laboratory diagnosis, Treatment and Prevention of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Laboratory diagnosis, Treatment and Prevention of Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Laboratory diagnosis of Legionella pneumophila, Laboratory Diagnosis, Treatment and Prevention of Francisella tularensis, Laboratory Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention and Control of Chlamydia trachomatis, Laboratory Diagnosis, Treatment and Prevention of Coxiella burnetii, Clostridium perfringens- Laboratory Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention, Neisseria gonorrhoeae- Laboratory Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention, Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL) Test, General Aseptic Techniques in Microbiology Laboratory, Viruses- Structure, Replication and Diagnosis, Acinetobacter baumannii- Lab Diagnosis, Treatment and Prevention, E. coli- Lab Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention and Control, Staphylococcus aureus- Lab Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention, Klebsiella pneumoniae- Lab Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention, Sample collection and Diagnosis of COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2), Principles of Diagnosis with Medical Microbiology, Laboratory diagnosis of Listeria monocytogenes, Laboratory diagnosis of Syphilis caused by Treponema pallidum. Once the bacterium enters the host's monocytes, macrophages, or polymorphonuclear leukocytes, it becomes bloodborne (sepsis) and can grow. WAsp can then bind the Arp2/3 complex and serve as an actin nucleation point. Colonies have a low-convex profile on nutrient agar. About 1.5% of U.S. early‐onset neonatal sepsis is caused by Listeria. 2.
Overall the current view is that σB plays a vital role in the early gastrointestinal stages of the infection whereas the regulator PrfA dominates during systemic spread and the intracellular stages of the infectious cycle (de las Heras et al., 2011; O'Byrne & Karatzas, 2008). The manifestations of listeriosis include sepsis, meningitis (or meningoencephalitis), encephalitis, corneal ulcer, pneumonia, and intrauterine or cervical infections in pregnant women, which may result in spontaneous abortion (second to third trimester) or stillbirth. Heat inactivation was at one point a cause of concern as early claims were made that L. monocytogenes could survive pasteurization perhaps as a function of its ability to invade neutrophils and leukocytes in milk. Listeria monocytogenes is a member of the Listeria genus, which also includes other species: Listeria ivanovii, Listeria seeligeri, Listeria innocua, and Listeria welshimeri (Table 1).
The latter properties make this food-borne pathogen particularly difficult to eliminate from the food chain, especially in so-called ready-to-eat foods, those foods that can be eaten without prior cooking (NicAogain & O'Byrne, 2016). The onset time to gastrointestinal symptoms is unknown, but probably exceeds 12 hours. Ryser, in Encyclopedia of Dairy Sciences (Second Edition), 2011. Most bacteria can survive near freezing temperatures, but cannot absorb nutrients, grow or replicate; however, L. monocytogenes has the ability to grow at temperatures as low as 0 °C which permits exponential multiplication in refrigerated foods. Gram-stain preparations of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) typically show no organisms because the bacteria are generally present in concentrations below the limit of detection (e.g., 10ˆ4 bacteria per milliliter CSF or less). The average overall annual incidence in 1989 was 0.8 case per 100,000 population; in 2003, it was approximately 0.3 per 100,000. Amber Dorey, ... Conor O'Byrne, in Advances in Applied Microbiology, 2019. In the European Union, listeriosis follows an upward trend that began in 2008, causing 2,161 confirmed cases and 210 reported deaths in 2014, 16% more than in 2013. Acute gastroenteritis is an unusual manifestation of listeriosis, despite its transmission by food, but it has been reported in point‐source outbreaks. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780123786128001013, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780123042200500170, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780123744074003940, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780123847300001919, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780123739445002170, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0065216418300546, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780123945907000014, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780323035064101920, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780123971692000743, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0065216408006035, Encyclopedia of Dairy Sciences (Second Edition), 2011, Pathogens in Milk | Listeria monocytogenes, Encyclopedia of Dairy Sciences (Second Edition), Encyclopedia of Food Microbiology (Second Edition), Encyclopedia of Microbiology (Third Edition), Role and regulation of the stress activated sigma factor sigma B (σB) in the saprophytic and host-associated life stages of Listeria monocytogenes, de las Heras, Cain, Bielecka, & Vazquez-Boland, 2011, Becker, Sevket, Etin, Hutkins, and Benson (1998), Kazmierczak, Mithoe, Boor, & Wiedmann, 2003, Fraser, Sue, Wiedmann, Boor, & O'Byrne, 2003, Tiensuu, Andersson, Rydén, & Johansson, 2013, Rauch, Luo, Muller-Altrock, & Goebel, 2005, Pediatric Clinical Advisor (Second Edition), Molecular Medical Microbiology (Second Edition), Acid Stress Responses in Listeria monocytogenes, International Journal of Food Microbiology.
For example L-glutamine, an abundant nitrogen source in the host, induces the expression of virulence genes in L. First, the gene encoding the virulence master regulator PrfA is preceded by two overlapping promoters, one of which is recognized by σB (Kazmierczak, Wiedmann, & Boor, 2006; Rauch, Luo, Muller-Altrock, & Goebel, 2005). The net effect of internalin binding is to exploit the junction-forming apparatus of the host into internalizing the bacterium. Although it can occur in healthy humans, listeriosis mainly affects the elderly, immunocompromised, persons pregnant women, and newborns, with a high case-fatality rate (20–30%).
, Listeria species grow on media such as Mueller-Hinton agar. , A bacteriophage, Listeria phage P100, has been proposed as food additive to control L. Brain abscesses and cerebritis may occur at all ages.
Javier A. Carrero, Emil R. Unanue, in Advances in Immunology, 2012. Surviving neonates of fetomaternal listeriosis may suffer granulomatosis infantiseptica — pyogenic granulomas distributed over the whole body — and may suffer from physical retardation.  It is the third-most common cause of meningitis in newborns.   Little is known about how this bacterium switches between acting as a saprophyte and a pathogen; however, several noncoding RNAs are thought to be required to induce this change. The organism is a facultative anaerobe and is catalase-positive and motile.
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