This continued into the New Testament: Revelation apparently has only one heaven, but the Epistle to the Hebrews and the epistles to the Colossians and the Ephesians have more than one, although they don't specify how many, and the apostle Paul tells of his visit to the third heaven, the place, according to contemporary thought, where the garden of Paradise is to be found. James H. Charlesworth, The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha and the New Testament, (1985), p. 89.  Others imply that the dead themselves are in some sense semi-divine, like the shade of the prophet Samuel, who is called an elohim, the same word used for God and gods. - Scholarly discussion of the Dead Sea Scrolls, 6. If you are able to find 1 verse that unambiguously states the earth to be globular/spherical, please email it to me at nathan@FlatEarthDoctrine.com. This imagery recalls the Mesopotamian god Ea who places his throne in Apsu, the primeval fresh waters beneath the Earth, and the Canaanite god El, described in the Baal cycle as having his palace on a cosmic mountain which is the source of the primordial ocean/water springs.  At much the same time the Bible was translated into Greek, and the translators used the Greek word paradaisos (Paradise) for the garden of God and Paradise came to be located in heaven. What the Bible really teaches about the heavens.  In earlier works the messengers were anonymous, but in the Second Temple period (539 BCE–100 CE) they began to be given names, and eventually became the vast angelic orders of Christianity and Judaism. , This article is about the cosmology of the Bible.  Nor do the biblical texts necessarily represent the beliefs of all Jews or Christians at the time they were put into writing: the majority of those making up Hebrew Bible or Old Testament in particular represent the beliefs of only a small segment of the ancient Israelite community, the members of a late Judean religious tradition centered in Jerusalem and devoted to the exclusive worship of Yahweh.  Creation by speech is not unique to the Old Testament: it is prominent in some Egyptian traditions. If we had a "nothing" between us and a star, we would see nothing but darkness (or more likely, be sucked closer to the star). I've just given the posts the dates of when those articles were written.  It's impossiBALL. , In the New Testament Jesus' conquest of the stormy sea shows the conquering deity overwhelming the forces of chaos: a mere word of command from the Son of God stills the foe (Mark 4:35–41), who then tramples over his enemy, (Jesus walking on water - Mark 6:45, 47–51). Third Heaven - Paradise, Astronomy confirms the accuracy of the Book of Enoch. Each of the videos on this page are from teachers who teach a Biblically based cosmology. I think that gravitation is caused by the "disappearance" of the local space.  In the Hellenistic period the Greek-speaking Jews of Egypt, perhaps under the influence of Greek thought, came to believe that the good would not die but would go directly to God, while the wicked would really die and go to the realm of Hades, god of the underworld, where they would perhaps suffer torment. , The Babylonians had a more complex idea of heaven, and during the Babylonian exile (6th century BCE) the influence of Babylonian cosmology led to the idea of a plurality of heavens among Jews. Therefore I like to call it the "electro-ocean". KNOWLEDGE IS A CONDITION.  In ancient Judah the mountain and the location of the Temple was Zion (Jerusalem), the navel and center of the world (Ezekiel 5:5 and 38:12). In the 18th chapter, he is describing a journey with the angels, where they are flying in an angelic "spaceship" southwards on the earth, and coming to a place where there are pillars of heavenly fire. it touched) the farthest edges of the Earth (e.g.  One of their number is "the Satan", literally "the accuser", who travels over the Earth much like a Persian imperial spy, (Job dates from the period of the Persian empire), reporting on, and testing, the loyalty of men to God. IMAGE: Two of the fragments of the Arameic Book of Enoch. Biblical Cosmology. A god dreaded in the Council of holy beings...?" , Two different models of the process of creation existed in ancient Israel. If space is expanding, why do scientists still talk about a big bang? Knowledge is to know God, not having known God, or having met him sometime, or to meet him sometimes - but to KNOW him, to live in an unbroken, increasing fellowship with him. If you wish to watch the videos of teachers who teach a heretical cosmological view click here.
 The Bible was formed over many centuries, involving many authors, and reflects shifting patterns of religious belief; consequently, its cosmology is not always consistent.  The remaining gods were now subject to Yahweh: "Who in the sky is comparable to Yahweh, like Yahweh among the divine beings? He has a Ph.D. in Linguistics from University College London. " Borrowing ideas from Greek philosophers who held that reason bound the universe together, the Wisdom tradition taught that God's Wisdom, Word and Spirit were the ground of cosmic unity.
, The point where heavenly and earthly realms join is depicted as an earthly "garden of God", associated with the temple and royal palace. Not a static, but a progressive, forwarding spiritual condition.  In Jerusalem the earthly Temple was decorated with motifs of the cosmos and the Garden, and, like other ancient near eastern temples, its three sections made up a symbolic microcosm, from the outer court (the visible world of land and sea), through the Holy Place (the visible heaven and the garden of God) to the Holy of Holies (the invisible heaven of God). , There is no concept of a human soul, or of eternal life, in the oldest parts of the Old Testament.
 There is, however, a difference between the Egyptian and Hebrew logos mythologies: in Genesis 1 the divine word of the Elohim is an act of "making into"; the word of Egyptian creator-god, by contrast, is an almost magical activation of something inherent in pre-creation: as such, it goes beyond the concept of fiat (divine act) to something more like the Logos of the Gospel of John. , A stream from underground (a subterranean ocean of fresh water?) Although some of the posts in this blog are from before 2008, this blog isn't that old. , Biblical Achaeology Review, july/aug 1994. To me, this sounds like they were flying over Africa (from the Middle East), and coming to the South Pole, and watching the Southern Lights. Biblical cosmology is the biblical writers' conception of the cosmos as an organised, structured entity, including its origin, order, meaning and destiny. What the Bible really teaches about the heavens, hidden in the stories of the prophets, misunderstood by both the world and the church, is now revealed through this ministry (and others), as we are approaching the end times. , The idea that the Earth was a sphere was developed by the Greeks in the 6th century BCE, and by the 3rd century BCE this was generally accepted by educated Romans and Greeks and even by some Jews.  Rain, snow, wind and hail were kept in storehouses outside the raqia, which had "windows" to allow them in – the waters for Noah's flood entered when the "windows of heaven" were opened.
3. Later Jewish thinkers, adopting ideas from Greek philosophy, concluded that God's Wisdom, Word and Spirit penetrated all things and gave them unity.
 The Satan does not inhabit or supervise the underworld – his sphere of activity is the human world – and is only to be thrown into the fire at the end of time.  Ezekiel 28:12–19 places the garden in Eden on the mountain of the gods; in Genesis 2–3 Eden's location is more vague, simply far away "in the east", but there is a strong suggestion in both that the garden is attached to a temple or palace.  Psalm 74 evokes the agon model: it opens with a lament over God's desertion of his people and their tribulations, then asks him to remember his past deeds: "You it was who smashed Sea with your might, who battered the heads of the monsters in the waters; You it was who crushed the heads of Leviathan, who left them for food for the denizens of the desert..." In this world-view the seas are primordial forces of disorder, and the work of creation is preceded by a divine combat (or "theomachy").
If there are more Biblical teachers who teach a Biblically based cosmology that you believe should be added to this page, please email me at nathan@FlatEarthDoctrine.com.  God initiates each creative act with a spoken word ("God said, Let there be..."), and finalises it with the giving of a name. Biblical cosmology could suggest other possibilities. N. Silberman, The Hidden Scrolls: Christianity, Judaism & the War for the Dead Sea Scrolls (1994), p.162.
 The Old Testament likewise locates islands alongside the Earth; (Psalm 97:1) these are the "ends of the earth" according to Isaiah 41:5, the extreme edge of Job's circular horizon (Job 26:10) where the vault of heaven is supported on mountains. a spring) waters of life. Before the First Day.  The Book of Enoch, dating from the period between the Old and New Testaments, separates the dead into a well-lit cavern for the righteous and dark caverns for the wicked, and provides the former with a spring, perhaps signifying that these are the "living" (i.e. , The three-part world of heavens, Earth and underworld floated in Tehom, the mythological cosmic ocean, which covered the Earth until God created the firmament to divide it into upper and lower portions and reveal the dry land; the world has been protected from the cosmic ocean ever since by the solid dome of the firmament. , The Genesis creation narrative (Genesis 1) is the quintessential "logos" creation myth.  In the Book of Job the Council of Heaven, the Sons of God (bene elohim) meet in heaven to review events on Earth and decide the fate of Job.
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